Cervical Procedures

Why Choose the GYN Surgical Institute for your Cervical Procedures?

Our highly skilled surgeons and staff have helped over 1,500 women in need of cervical procedures that include, Colposcopy, LEEP, Cone Biopsies and more. Our dedicated and compassionate staff understands the stress associated with being diagnosed with abnormal cells and are available 24/7 for any questions or concerns.

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Procedures

Abnormal Cell Treatments

COLPOSCOPY, CRYOTHERAPY AND CONE BIOPSY

When a PAP smear results show abnormal changes in the cells of your cervix your doctor will start with procedures to give you more information about what is going on.

COLPOSCOPY 

A colposcopy is a procedure that allows a physician to examine a woman’s cervix and vagina using a special microscope called a colposcope. A colposcopy might be used to further assess problems such as genital warts on the cervix, cervicitis (inflamed cervix), or benign growth such as polyps, pain, bleeding. During a colposcopy, our specialists may see abnormal areas. A biopsy of these areas may be done. During a biopsy, a small piece of abnormal tissue is removed from the cervix. Cells also may be taken from the canal of the cervix. Dysplasia or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are terms that describe the actual precancerous changes that occur in the cervix. These changes are due to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Dysplasia and CIN are graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Mild dysplasia (CIN 1) usually goes away on its own. Moderate (CIN 2) and severe (CIN 3) dysplasia indicate more serious changes.

CRYOTHERAPY

Cryotherapy is a technique that freezes and sheds abnormal tissue. It can be used to treat mild to moderate dysplasia. Cryotherapy is an effective method for destroying abnormal cervical tissue; studies show that it can destroy all of the abnormal tissue in 77% to 96% of cases.

CONE BIOPSY 

A cone biopsy is an extensive form of a cervical biopsy. It is called a cone biopsy because a cone-shaped wedge of tissue is removed from the cervix and examined under a microscope. A cone biopsy removes abnormal tissue that is high in the cervical canal. A small amount of normal tissue around the cone-shaped wedge of abnormal tissue is also removed so that a margin free of abnormal cells is left in the cervix.

Cervical Cerclage

KEEPING A WEAK CERVIX FROM OPENING EARLY

Cervical cerclage is the placement of stitches in the cervix to hold it closed. In select cases, this procedure is used to keep a weak cervix (incompetent cervix) from opening early. When a cervix opens early, it may cause preterm labor and delivery. The best time for the procedure is during the third month (12-14 weeks) of pregnancy. However, some women may need a cerclage placed later in pregnancy; this is known as an emergent cerclage and is necessary after changes such as opening or shortening of the cervix have already begun. If an emergent cerclage is required, future pregnancies will probably also require a cervical cerclage.
 

After the cerclage has been placed, you will be observed for at least several hours (sometimes overnight) to ensure that you do not go into premature labor. You will then be allowed to return home, but will be instructed to remain in bed or avoid physical activity for two to three days, or up to two weeks. We will continue to monitor you and your pregnancy closely to monitor any preterm labor signs and your cervix.

LEEP

LOOP ELECTROSURGICAL EXCISION PROCEDURE

The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) uses a thin, low-voltage electrified wire loop to cut out abnormal tissue. A LEEP can cut away abnormal cervical tissue and remove abnormal tissue high in the cervical canal. The physician uses a colposcope to identify the abnormal areas of the cervix. Numbing medication is injected into the cervix with a needle. When the cervix is anesthetized, a small segment at its end is removed with a hot wire shaped in a loop. This wire carries electrical energy to cauterize tissue and reduce bleeding as it passes through. Medication is applied to the cervix to stop the bleeding and promote healing.

Cryosurgery

ABNORMAL CELLS REMOVAL

Cervical cryosurgery is the use of extreme cold to freeze areas of the cervix. This procedure is done to destroy and remove abnormal cells of the cervix, particularly precancerous cells and it typically for smaller numbers of irregular cells. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to hold it open and the cryosurgery probe is inserted into the vagina. Nitrous oxide makes the tip extremely cold. The tip is touched to abnormal areas on the cervix. It is held there for a few minutes; slight cramping may be experienced. The tip is removed, which allows the tissue to return to its normal temperature over the course of 3-5 minutes. This freezing and thawing cycle may be repeated several times for each abnormal area on the cervix. Recovery time is approximately 10 to 15 minutes.

Trachelectomy for young women

CERVICAL CANCER TREATMENT WITH PREVENTION OF FERTILITY

Cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer among women worldwide. For women who are of childbearing age and develop cervical cancer, traditional surgical options involved a total hysterectomy. However, a trachelectomy, or cervixectomy, is considered to be the optimal treatment for women of this age group with a desire to preserve fertility. It is performed on women with early cancer of the cervix (on a tumor no larger than 2-3 centimeters). In this surgery, the cervix and the upper part of the vagina are removed but the rest of the uterus is left in place. A lymphadenectomy, or removal of the lymph nodes, in the pelvic area is also performed (usually by keyhole laparoscopic surgery) to see if the cancer has spread.

More About The Cervix

What Is the Cervix?

The cervix is a cylinder-shaped neck of tissue that connects the vagina and uterus. Located at the lowermost portion of the uterus, the cervix is composed primarily of fibromuscular tissue. It is typically 1 inch long.
There are two main portions of the cervix:

  • The part of the cervix that can be seen from inside the vagina during a gynecologic examination is known as the ectocervix. An opening in the center of the ectocervix, known as the external os, opens to allow passage between the uterus and vagina.
  • The endocervix is a tunnel through the cervix, from the external os into the uterus. Through this canal, sperm will travel to reach the unfertilized egg after it releases from the Fallopian tubes.
    The overlapping border between the endocervix and ectocervix is called the transformation zone. At this point, the cervix produces cervical mucus that changes in consistency during the menstrual cycle to prevent or promote pregnancy. During childbirth, the cervix dilates widely to allow the baby to pass through. During menstruation, the cervix opens a small amount to permit passage of menstrual flow.

Most Common Cervical Disorders

CERVICAL CANCER
Most cervical cancer is caused by infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Regular Pap tests can prevent cervical cancer in most women.

CERVICAL INCOMPETENCE
Early opening, or dilation, of the cervix during pregnancy that can lead to premature delivery. Previous procedures on the cervix are often responsible.

CERVICITIS
Inflammation of the cervix, usually caused by infection. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes are some of the sexually transmitted infections that can cause cervicitis.

CERVICAL DYSPLASIA
Abnormal cells in the cervix that can become cervical cancer. Cervical dysplasia is frequently discovered on Pap test. Also called Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

CERVIX POLYPS
Small growths on the part of the cervix where it connects to the vagina. Polyps are painless and usually harmless, but they can cause vaginal bleeding.

PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID)
Infection of the cervix, known as cervicitis, may spread into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Pelvic inflammatory disease can damage a woman’s reproductive organs and make it more difficult for her to become pregnant.

HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) INFECTION
Human papillomaviruses are a group of viruses, including certain types that cause cervical cancer and also dangerous types of the virus cause genital and cervical warts. Many types of HPV can be prevented with the Gardasil vaccine.

 

Symptoms you should not ignore

Some of the symptoms that indicate that you need to consult an OB/GYN specialist immediately are

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding (Bleeding after sex or between periods)
  • Painful intercourse
  • Difficult, painful or frequent urination
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain

 

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